The Taleju Bhawani temple in Bhaktapur, around 15 km from Kathmandu, Nepal, and the Tulja Bhawani temple in Solapur are 2000 Km apart, but brings about a fascinating fact of intricate cultural ties between Chalukya Kings of Southern India and Malla Dynasty of Nepal 3500 years back.
Goddess Taleju Bhawani is the patron goddess of the Newar people of Nepal. The Newars are the ancient inhabitants of Nepal, practicing Hindu and Tibetan Buddhist culture still.
This was 1500 BCE, while the Chinese were still a small settlement beginning to take shape as Yellow River Civilization, in the middle and lower basin of the Yellow River.
In China then, Agriculture was a very basic form of the lively hood, in the flood plain of the Yellow River and metalworking techniques were being brought from the settlers moving outwards from the disintegrated Indus Valley Civilization to the small settlers in the Yellow River basin, China.
4000 years Old History of Nepa Kingdom
Some 3500 to 4000 years from now, around 2000BC, after the fall of the Indus valley civilization, due to environmental changes, a mass migration took place to the Indian subcontinent, Himalayan Terai, and Hills( as part of a movement of valley dwellers to all sides of Indus Valley Basin). Hari-Hara Chhetri (of present-day Gandaki Basins, including Muktinath, Deaughat, and Triveni of Western Nepal), was one of the most important centers of Vedic Aryans, who had already expanded Swarswat Vedic Civilization.
Puranic record about previous to the entry of the Aryans into Nepal and India indicates early dwellers as Urus. It is indicated by SkandaPurana (ManasKhanda) that an ancient Pre-Vedic Aryan clan of Urus might have traveled into Tibet and then to Far-Western Nepal via UruParvat (present-day Urai Pass in Bajhang District of Nepal).
Urus of pre-vedicNepal had significant trade with Indus Valley pockets and hence had a distinct relationship with Post Indus valley Aryans.
This Vedic Civilization, which was flourishing after the fall of the Harappa-Mohen-Jo-Daro Civilization, was in danger of being extinct. To avoid this potential disaster, the Rig-Vedic Aryans had to move on towards the basins of River Jamunaand than towards the basins ofRiverSarayu (Karnali) and Sada-Nira (Gandaki) and into the region of Urus. This was a peaceful amalgamation and coexistence with Kiratas, Nishadhs and Santhals continued for centuries.
Nepal this existed about 2000 BC, mushrooming in Kathmandu valley named as “Nepa” but later many times it was ruled by other rulers.
India as we know today, was known as Bharata Varshe or Bharata Kande which means Indian Sub Continent. Indian Sub Continent had more than 600 Kingdoms.
The Kings, including of Nepa Kingdomshared some common things, like they were all belonging to the Warrior Class, and marriages between one kingdom to another, was quite common(Kings and princess of Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh had some of their ancestors married to the Kings or Princess in Nepal). This resulted in the consolidation of relationships socially, economically in the whole of Indo-Gangetic plains, including the Nepa Kingdom.
Fourth Century BC
North India was again united by the Gupta emperors again in the fourth century. Their capital was the old Mauryan center of Pataliputra (present-day Patna in Bihar State), during what Indian writers often describe as a golden age of artistic and cultural creativity. The greatest conqueror of this dynasty was Samudragupta (reigned BC 353 to 73), who claimed that the “Kings of Nepal” paid him taxes and tribute and placed his Gurkha Army along with his Army at his command, as was the case in the Indian subcontinent kings of Rajasthan, Punjab, and Gujrat, then.
Some of the earliest examples of Nepalese art show that the culture of north India during Gupta times exercised a decisive influence on Nepali language, religion, and artistic expression.
The Mauryan Empire (268 to 31 B.C.) and Buddhism origin in Nepal
The political struggles and urbanization of north India culminated in the great Mauryan Empire, which at its height under Ashoka (reigned 268 to 31 B.C.) covered almost all of South Asia and stretched into Afghanistan in the west. There were records of Ashoka located at Lumbini, the Buddha’s birthplace, in the Nepal Tarai. The empire had important cultural and political ties with Nepal. Like smaller kingdoms of Ashoka, Nepal also paid tribute to him.
First, Ashoka himself embraced Buddhism, and during his time the religion becomes established in the Kathmandu Valley and throughout much of Nepal. In Nepal, like the rest of India, Paganism(worship of duties) coexisted with Buddhism. Ashoka was known as a great builder of stupas, and his archaic style is preserved in four mounds on the outskirts of Patan (now often referred to as Lalitpur), which were locally called Ashok stupas, and possibly in the Svayambhunath (or Swayambhunath) stupa.
Second, along with religion came to an entire cultural style centered on the king as the upholder of dharma, or the cosmic law of the universe, which was also an integral part of the Kingdom of Nepal.
The interactions of various rulers in the Indus Basin of Punjab, Gangetic Plains, and Nepal regions were based on trade and cemented by marriages between royal families.
Nepal Early Kingdom of the Licchavis (400 to 750 A.D.)
In the late fifth century, rulers calling themselves Licchavis were known from early Buddhist legends as a ruling family during the Buddha’s time in India, and the founder of the Gupta Dynasty claimed that he had married a Licchavi princess, and gave a Gupta prince to Licchavi Dynasty.
All of the Licchavi records are deeds reporting donations to religious foundations, predominantly Hindu temples. The language of the inscriptions is Sanskrit, the language of the court in north India, and the script is closely related to official Gupta scripts.
There is little doubt that Nepal exerted a powerful cultural influence, especially through the area called Mithila, the northern part of present-day Bihar State.
Eighth Century AD and Beyond
By 843. Some early historians, such as the French scholar Sylvain Lévi, thought that Nepal may have feuds with Tibet for some time, but more recent Nepalese historians, including Dilli Raman Regmi, deny this interpretation. In any case, from the seventh century onward a recurring pattern of foreign relations emerged for rulers in Nepal.
Tibetan influence arose, and confluence was there with Nepal, Indian terai kingdoms, Nepali hill areas, and Tibetans in the north. This was true to Tibetan cultural and trade exchange all along the Himalayan kingdoms starting from Ladakh till Sikkim.
The economy of the Kathmandu Valley already was based on agriculture during this period. Peasants lived in villages (grama) that were administratively grouped into larger units (dranga). They grew rice and other grains as staples on lands owned by the royal family, other major families, Buddhist monastic orders (sangha), or groups of Brahmans (agrahara).
Land taxes due in theory to the king were often allocated to religious or charitable foundations, and additional labor dues (vishti) were required from the peasantry in order to keep up irrigation works, roads, and shrines. The village head (usually known as pradhan, meaning a leader in family or society) and leading families handled most local administrative issues, forming the village assembly of leaders (panchalika or gramapancha). This ancient history of localized decision making served as a model for late-twentieth-century Nepal and Indian regions of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
India-Nepal Military Kinship
Ruling the Bharata Khande Together Since Ages
The propaganda of restricting India-Nepal Military ties to last 70 years with the Indian Union and since the last 150 years with British India, cannot be a bigger understatement.
The earliest authentic renowned reference is of Mahabharata or the Kurukshetra wars, around 4500 years from now. Reference of Malla kings and the Kirata Kingdom (Hindu mythology refers to any kingdom of the Kirata people, who were dwellers mostly in the Himalayas (mostly eastern Himalayas). They took part in the Kurukshetra War.
Subsequently, there was regular requisitioning of the fiercely capable warrior troops during the next 3000 years during the Vedic period, by Mauryan and Gupta empires and even during the rule of King Kanishka- of the Kushan Shah dynasty, when he taxed the Chinese Silk Trade Route.
While during the Turk and Mughal rule in India, Nepalese kingdoms consolidated the areas of present-day Nepal, Kumaon, Garhwal, and Sikkim to resist and defeat many campaigns against it, and were actively pursued by the Sikh fighters to fight along with them, against invaders.
Military ties started taking shape once again during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh whose army in Lahore enlisted Nepalese soldiers called Lahure or soldiers of fortune. Subsequently, British Raj raised the first battalion of the Gurkha Regiment as the Nasiri regiment in 1815.
By the time the First World War started, there were 10 Gurkha regiments in the British Indian Army. When India got freedom, these regiments were divided between the British and Indian armies as per the Britain–India–Nepal Tripartite Agreement signed in November 1947.
Six Gurkha regiments with lakh-odd soldiers came to India. They went on to raise another regiment called 11 Gurkha Rifles to accommodate soldiers of 7th Gurkha Rifles and the 10th Gurkha Rifles, who chose not to transfer to the British Army.
To this date, any Nepali can join the Indian Army, both as a jawan and as an officer. A citizen of Nepal can take the National Defence Academy or Combined Defence Services exams and join the Indian Army as an officer. The Nepalese army also sends its officers for training to India’s military academies and combat colleges. The Gurkha regiments, which have 35 battalions, recruit a large number of troops from Nepal
Indian Chief of Army Staff is the honorary chief of the Nepalese army: Nepal and India have since 1950 followed the tradition of decorating the chiefs of each other’s armies with the highest Army rank, as a symbol of shared culture and taking the onus of responsibility of preserving their sovereignty.
Nepal President Bidhya Devi Bhandari will confer honorary rank of General of the Nepali Army upon Indian Army chief M.M. Naravane at an investiture ceremony, as the present Nepal Army Chief also holds the honorary rank of General of the Indian Army.
Nepal’s position, sandwiched between India and China, has been asked quite a few questions in recent times, especially with China’s propaganda of “world originating from it”, just like a power-hungry Dragon that it is.
Situated between the two regional powers. One side is a Dragon which aspires to be a global power, occupying five countries (Tibet, East Turkmenistan, South Mongolia, Manchuria, and Hong Kong) and laying claim of over 56 territories of its neighbors like India, Nepal, Mongolia, Russia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Philippines.
On the other side is a non-ambitious, non-aggressive, 4000 years old strong developing ally, with no history of aggression for thousands of years-just like Nepal. A relationship is more of a brother, which has only been committing Aid and exchanging cultural pleasantries for the last 70 years, and with mutually respectable trade equations.
China has masterminded its Maoist agenda, by waging a guerrilla war for 15 years against Nepal. After a peace accord a decade back, China has meddled so badly in affairs, that Nepal has seen eleven Prime Ministers since 2007. More is political instability, more Nepal moves away from India towards Maoist leanings of China.
China wants Nepal to be like Pakistan and North Korea, with a highly unstable political environment, terrorized public, who look up to China for support, in a fake “hate wave” towards India.
Here the thousands of years of equal brother India shall stand up in these times of Peril of Indo-Nepali saga of brotherhood and blood kinship. Together in the Gurkha spirit, we Indian and Nepali shall ensure keeping Nepal and India one entity, as have our forefathers for thousands of years.
04 Nov 20/Wednesday Written By : Fayaz